Bibliography

Alessio, J. (2013) Understanding the difference between type and lettering. [Online] Available at: http://www.smashingmagazine.com/2013/01/understanding-difference-between-type-and-lettering/ [Accessed 8 December 2015].

Baines, P. & Haslam, A. (2005) Type & Typography. London: Laurence King.

BBC. (2005 a) Stoke and Staffordshire Voices. [Online]. Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/stoke/voices2005/features/audio.shtml %5B [Accessed 12 December].

BBC. (2005 b) East midlands dialects. [Online]. Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/insideout/eastmidlands/series7/dialect_voices.shtml [Accessed 12 December].

BBC. (2007) Your Staffordshire words. [Online]. Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/stoke/content/articles/2007/04/23/staffordshire_words_feature.shtml %5B [Accessed 12 December].

BBC (2015) Local words. [Online]. Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/stoke/discover_staffordshire/local_life/local_words/ [Accessed 12 December].

BBC News. (2005) East End Cockney accent ‘fading’ . [Online]. Available at: http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk/4171644.stm %5B [Accessed 9 December 2015].

BBC Radio 4 (2015) Shipping forecast, [Online] Available from: http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b06np8vc [Accessed 3 December 2015].

Britishlibrary. (2015 a). Sounds: Survey of English dialects. [Online]. Available at: http://sounds.bl.uk/Accents-and-dialects/Survey-of-English-dialects/021M-C0908X0055XX-0700V1 %5B [Accessed 12 December].

BritishLibrary. (2015 b) Sounds: Early spoken word recordings. [Online] Available at: http://sounds.bl.uk/Accents-and-dialects/Early-spoken-word-recordings [Accessed 20 Novemeber 2015].

Cambridgedictionary. (2015 a) Dialect. [Online] Available at: http://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/dialect [Accessed: 12 December].

Cambridgedictionary. (2015 b) Dialect Grammar. [Online]. Available at:http://dictionary.cambridge.org/grammar/british-grammar/dialect [Accessed 12 December].

 

Collins (2015a) inflection. [Online] Available at: http://www.collinsdictionary.com/dictionary/english/inflection [Accessed 19 October 2015].

 

Collins (2015 b) intonation. [Online] Available at: http://www.collinsdictionary.com/dictionary/english/intonation

[Accessed: 19 October 2015].

 

ColorWheelpro (2015) Color wheel pro-See Color theory in Action, [Online] Available at: http://www.color-wheel-pro.com/color-meaning.html [Accessed 8 December 2015].

 

Crow, D. (2006) Left to right: the cultural shift from words to pictures. Lausanne: AVA Academia.

 

Crystal, D. (1992) Introducing Linguistics. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books.

 

Lupton, E (2009) Ellen Lupton. [Online] Available at: http://elupton.com [Accessed 30 October 2015].

 

Lupton, E. (2010) Thinking with type: a critical guide for designers, writers, editors, & students. New York: Princeton Architectural.

 

Lupton, E. & Miller, J. (1999) Design Writing Research: writing on graphic design. London: Phaidon.

Nottingham Trent University . (2015). East Midlands Voices (natalie_braber). [Online]. Available at: http://www.ntu.ac.uk/apps/research/groups/2/home.aspx/project/151428/overview/east_midlands_voices_(natalie_braber) [Accessed 12 December].

 

O’Reilly, J., Macdonald, N., Poynor, R., & Crowley, D. (2004) Communicate: independent British graphic design since the Sixties. London: Laurence King.

Oxforddictionaries. (2015). Accent. [Online]. Available at: http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/english/accent [Accessed 12 December].

 

Poynor, R. (2003) No more rules: graphic design and postmodernism. London: Laurence King.

 

Spiekemann, E. & Ginger, E. M. (2003) Stop stealing sheep: & find out how type works. Berkeley, Calif: Adobe Press.

 

Tedtalks. (2008) Paula Scher: Great design is serious, not solemn. TedTalks. [Online] Available at: https://www.ted.com/talks/paula_scher_gets_serious?language=en [Accessed 30 October 2015].

 

Uhasselt. (2015) Ann Bessemans in the running as New Scientist Science Talent. Uhasselt. [Online] Available at: https://www.uhasselt.be/UH/Nieuws/2015/Ann-Bessemans-in-de-running-als-New-Scientist-Wetenschapstalent-2015.html [Accessed 30 October 2015.]

 

Yule, G. (2010) The Study of Language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

 

Youtube (2007) You’re only supposed to blow the bloody doors off!-The Italian Job, [Online] Available from: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8g_GeQR8fJo [Accessed 3 December 2015].

 

Youtube (2011) Say hello to my little friend –Scarface, [Online] Available from: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=a_z4IuxAqpE [Accessed 3 December 2015].

 

Youtube (2011) Forest Gump-Life is like a box of chocolates. [Online] Available from:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CJh59vZ8ccc [Accessed 3 December 2015].

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Research: Accents and Dialects

“Accents are a reflection of society and as society changes so accents change,” said one of the consultants to the project, professor David Crystal. (BBC News,2005)

What is an accent ?

A distinctive way of pronouncing a language, especially one  associated with a particular country, area, or social class.
A distinct emphasis given to a syllable or word in speech by stress or pitch.

(Oxforddictionaries,2015).

What is a Dialect?

A dialect is a form of language that people speak in a particular part of a country containing some different words and grammar etc.

(Cambridgedictionary, 2015 a)

Difference between the Accent and Dialect

A dialect is not the same as an accent. An accent refers to the way we pronounce words and the standard dialect of a language can be spoken with different accents.

Examples of dialect forms in British English are:

I ain’t going to school today (standard form: I’m not going to school today)

Would you like a cheese cob -The word ‘cob’ is a dialect in parts of the north England and means ‘bread roll. (Cambridgedictionary, 2015 b)

 

  • An accent is the way that particular person or group of people sound. It’s the way somebody pronounces words, the musicality of their speech, etc.
  • A dialect describes both a person’s accent and the grammatical features of the way that person talks.

For my practice, I will investigate how Staffordshire accents will be shown through type, as I want to concentrate on how words are pronounced and Dialect may be a small part of this 

 

‘Ey up mi duck’-Dialect  is used in Derbyshire and some parts of Staffordshire (BBC, 2005 c).

Why Staffordshire?

As its not well known accent such as; cockney.

Its local to me.

Why accents?

I chose accents so I am not limited.

Words in Staffordshire: Bus-Buz-accent water -wata- accent 

mardy-dialect

Cobs-dialect

How will I do this project?

I will interview a local resident of Staffordshire to help me with source material.

I will also research further into accents and dialects. To help me further I will email lecturers/tutors to help me to further my knowledge on accents/dialects.

  • Natialie Braber is an project leader-English at Nottingham Trent University, who has done an research project examining accents and dialects in East midlands.

Research: Accents

  • Look at Clockwork orange, Trainspotting, Private eye -for different accents

 

Research on accents and dialects: references listed below:

Bibliography 

BBC. (2005 a) Stoke and Staffordshire Voices. [Online]. Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/stoke/voices2005/features/audio.shtml %5BAccessed at: 12 December].

BBC. (2005 b) East midlands dialects. [Online].  Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/insideout/eastmidlands/series7/dialect_voices.shtml [Accessed at: 12 December].

BBC. (2007) Your Staffordshire words. [Online]. Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/stoke/content/articles/2007/04/23/staffordshire_words_feature.shtml %5BAccessed at: 12 December].

BBC (2015) Local words. [Online]. Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/stoke/discover_staffordshire/local_life/local_words/ [Accessed at: 12 December].

BBC News. (2005)East End Cockney accent ‘fading’ . [Online]. Available at: http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk/4171644.stm %5BAccessed 9 December 2015].

Britishlibrary. (2015). Sounds: Survey of English dialects. [Online]. Available at: http://sounds.bl.uk/Accents-and-dialects/Survey-of-English-dialects/021M-C0908X0055XX-0700V1 %5BAccessed at: 12 December].

BritishLibrary. (2015) Sounds: Early spoken word recordings. [Online] Available at: http://sounds.bl.uk/Accents-and-dialects/Early-spoken-word-recordings [Accessed 20 Novemeber 2015].

Cambridgedictionary. (2015 a) Dialect. [Online] Available at: http://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/dialect [Accessed at: 12 December].

Cambridgedictionary. (2015 b) Dialect Grammar. [Online]. Available at:http://dictionary.cambridge.org/grammar/british-grammar/dialect [Accessed at: 12 December].

Nottingham Trent University . (2015). East Midlands Voices (natalie_braber). [Online]. Available at: http://www.ntu.ac.uk/apps/research/groups/2/home.aspx/project/151428/overview/east_midlands_voices_(natalie_braber) [Accessed at: 12 December].

Oxforddictionaries. (2015). Accent. [Online]. Available at: http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/english/accent [Accessed at: 12 December].

Western Australian Academy of performing arts. (2015) Julia Moody. [Online]. Available at: https://www.waapa.ecu.edu.au/about/our-staff/profiles/performance-aboriginal-theatre-acting-music-theatre-dance/ms-julia-moody [Accessed at: 12 December].

Yule, G. (2010) The Study of Language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

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Inflection and Intonation

Inflection is the modulation of the voice and a change in the form of a word, which is dependant on the change in tense, mood, voice, gender, and person. It is usually an affixation or modification (Collins, 2015a).

In linguistics intonation is the sound pattern of phrases and sentences by pitch and variation in the voice. Intonation is the rise and fall of voice in speaking (Collins, 2015 b)

These two terms will be an important part my practice, as they will help me change and emphasise the type depending on the intonation (the rise and fall in pitch and inflection- the way a word spoken-tone of voice.

 

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Visual Culture Dissertation

From my dissertation, I am examining how designers are representing speech. I will examine about Derrida’s  Deconstruction theory on speech and writing to help me to analyse designers work. I have found the dissertation useful, as its helped a lot with researching on a theoretical level and helped my knowledge of how designers are using the voice in there work and to increase my knowledge of the sub fields of oral language

Derrida believed that writing never stops and any written word or sentence is not limited to any single idea. Derrida was well known for developing the strategy called ‘deconstruction’ which claims that text undermines the meaning and it is a way of reading that is not intended. He believed that the deconstruction theory shows the two oppositions that are dominant ways of thinking, which are speech and writing (Lupton and Miller, 1999).

My dissertation has helped with research and examining designers using the voice and identifying the sub fields of linguistics, phonology, syntax, pragmatics, semantics morphology, intonation and the differences of speech and writing, which helped to identify that writing is a copy of speech, suggesting that typography is heard as well as seen.

 

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Alexander Rodchenko

Alexander Rodchenko

Rodchenko was an artist and graphic designer, who was one of the founders of constructivism and Russian Design.

adbusters_AlexanderRodchenko.jpg

Rodchenko, A. (1925) SHOUT IT ALL OUT: LENGIZ BOOKS ON ALL SUBJECTS! [Online] Available at: https://www.adbusters.org/content/alexander-rodchenko

  • Words coming out the mouth-Shouting.
  • Image and text.
  • Use different sizes of lettering to portray volume of sounds.
  • Rodchenko’s work has helped me by showing different sizes of lettering to portray volume and how colours can be used for emphasis.

 

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Difference between hand rendering and typography

‘Just as typography is not lettering, lettering is not typography.’ (Alessio, 2013)

From the concept panel, I got the two terms Hand rendering and typography mixed up. So I decided to research more in to this and write down the differences.

Typography

  • Typography is primarily the skill of setting type. 
  • Subset of characters
  • Typefaces
  • “writing with prefabricated characters.”  (Alessio, 2013)
  • Typesetting.
  • Leading – spacing between lines that is typeset.
  • Kerning-Horizontal spacing between characters.
  • Characters
  • Uses a grid
  • Letters are components. 
  • Typography is used for titles to body text.some of which present a myriad of typographic considerations that those concerned with lettering will not have to think about.
  • Johannes Gutenberg built his printing press around 1439- the concept of typography, which had been developing slowly, was revolutionized.
  • The moveable type system, metal alloy and casting methods gave the world a practical solution to printing. This gave rise to the discipline of typography as we know it, with kerning, leading, which are the terms we still use today.

 

Lettering

  •  Hand lettering is an art of designing letters
  • Marking.
  • Does not use a grid
  • Specific combination of letterforms crafted.
  •  hand-drawn, with pens, graphite or brushes
  • Engraving  is related to lettering.
  • Line spacing.
  • Space between letters.
  • Calligraphy is based on penmanship; it’s essentially “writing letters.”
  • Lettering, is based on draftsmanship- “drawing letters.”
  • The arts of both lettering and calligraphy have been around since time immemorial.
  • Spoken languages quickly developed writing systems, which were then used to communicate through a more enduring medium than speech.
  • Lettering and calligraphy followed cultural trends to flower into ornament type through the Victorian era and the florid shapes of Art Nouveau. The worlds of type and lettering constantly intermeshed.
  • History has provided us with endless examples of lettering and calligraphy, by engraving, pen and brush, which are rosetta stone and ancient Roman inscriptions to the works of scribal art mentioned.

 

 

lindisfarne2.jpg

Manuscript_nerd. Lindisfarne Gospels. [Online]. Available at: https://www.flickr.com/photos/83142434@N07/7807754206/ [Accessed 12 December 2015]

  • Manuscript.
  • Lavishly decorated lettering
  • Lindisfarne Gospels

chinesecalligraphy.jpg

Flickr, (2012) Traditional Chinese calligraphy. [Online]. Available at: https://www.flickr.com/photos/terry/6839152872/ [Accessed 8 December 2015].

Why is hand rendering closer to the voice?

For my project, I have used hand rendering, as a method, as from researching I found that hand rendering offers more flexibility of thinking  and time because your senses (hands and eyes) are involved in a touchable creative process and not just merely pointing and clicking which has the tendency to mundane the brain (Cok, 1999). Therefore hand rendering can be closer related to the voice as its more personal.

Cok, S, R. (1999). Method for rendering improved personal handwriting.  [Online].Available at: https://www.google.com/patents/US6298154#forward-citations [Accessed at: 8 December 2015]

 

 

 

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Seb Lester

Seb Lester is an artist type designer and calligrapher. Lester is well known for his prominent type designs and calligraphic prints.

Lester, S. (2015) Type designs. [Online] Available at: https://www.instagram.com/seblester/ [Accessed at: 9 December 2015]

  • calligraphic type.
  • brush stroke lettering.
  • Sizing letters = volume
  • Weight of letter = volume
  • stylised type.
  • Visually Appealing
  • Lester’s work has helped me to experiment and render lettering in different ways. However I do not want to concentrate too much on stylising type, as it does not closely relate to sound.125_Dreams

Lester, S. (2015)  Dreams. [Online] Available at: http://www.seblester.com/ [Accessed at: 9 December 2015]

  • brush stroke lettering.
  • Distinctive.
  • Bold.
  • Stands out.
  • Sizing letters = volume
  • Weight of letter = volume
  • Stylised type.
  • Visually Appealing
  • Lester’s work has helped me to experiment and render lettering in different ways. However I do not want to concentrate too much on stylising type, as it does not closely relate to sound
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